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Nizhny Novgorod

Nizhny Novgorod (colloquially often - Lower) - a city in Russia, the administrative center of Nizhny Novgorod region, the center and the largest city of the Volga Federal District. Located in the center of the East European Plain at the confluence of the Oka and Volga. Oka divides the city into two parts - the upper to the lower Dyatlova mountains and low-lying on its left bank. In the period from 1932 to 1990 the city was known as Gorky (in honor of the writer Maxim Gorky). Nizhny Novgorod - the fifth most populous city in Russia with a population of 1,259,921 (as of 1 January 2013), is an important economic, transport and cultural center of the country. The city is the center of Nizhny Novgorod metropolitan area, has a population of 2,080,000 people., It is the sixth largest in the country and the second in the Middle Volga. Nizhny Novgorod is located about 400 km east of Moscow, and a transport corridor between the two cities stands out as the conurbation Moscow - Nizhny Novgorod. Known as a major center for shipbuilding, aviation, automotive and information technology. Nizhny Novgorod is the center of Russia by number created online programs. The number of spam attacks on the world's resources equivalent to 24% of the total. A large number of resources on the subject of hookers.In the period from 1959 to 1991 the city was closed to foreigners, but now it is the largest center of river cruise tourism in Russia and the venue for international exhibitions of different profiles on the basis of the Nizhny Novgorod Fair.

History

The feudal period

The monument to Prince Yury Vsevolodovichu and Simon Bishop of Suzdal in the Archangel Cathedral in the Kremlin Since IX century, the gradual peaceful colonialist movement of the Slavs on the upper Volga river on lands inhabited by Finno-Ugric peoples. By the end of XI century Russia belonged to the entire upper Volga almost to the mouth of the Oka River. Started a little lower limits of the Volga Bulgar, and the right bank of the Volga up to the mouth of the Sura was settled Erzyan. The "last" Slavic city on the Volga River to 1221 was Gorodets. In 1221, Prince George Vsyevolodovitch at the confluence of the Volga and the Oka was founded stronghold of defense boundaries Vladimir principality of moksha, Erza, Mari and the Volga Bulgars called Novgorod Huso? WCSS earth (ground Nizovskaya called Vladimir principality of Novgorod) - later the name was transformed into Nizhny Novgorod, the imperial title was maintained until 1917. In the feudal period, Nizhny Novgorod was alternately lot of Suzdal and Vladimir principalities. In 1350 the city became the capital in 1341 created independent of the Nizhny Novgorod and Suzdal Grand Duchy, which occupied a vast territory and competed with Moscow. During this period, Nizhny Novgorod lands became actively populated.

The consolidation of the Russian state

In 1392 (but finally only in 1425 under Basil II) during the consolidation of the Moscow principality Nizhegorodsko great-Suzdal principality was annexed to the possessions of Moscow, and Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod became the center of the county. When Ivan III and Vasily III city has played the role of the sentry post, had a standing army, and was a gathering place for hikes in the Kazan Khanate. At this time, in the years 1500-1511, was built to replace the stone Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin-existing wood. After a campaign of Vasily III in Kazan in 1523 on the river Sura city was founded Vasil (now Vasilsursk) to whom the duties of the border, and the conquest of Kazan and Astrakhan, Ivan IV borders on the Volga disappeared altogether. In the Time of Troubles, Nizhny Novgorod, along with the Trinity-Sergius Lavra continued to support Moscow. A decisive role in the liberation of the Polish-Lithuanian invaders played Nizhny Novgorod militia in 1612 under the leadership of the Nizhny Novgorod Zemsky elder Kuzma Minin and Prince Dmitry Pozharsky.


Nizhny Novgorod in the first half of the XVII century (from the book by A. Oleary 1656) In the XVII century schism that occurred in the Orthodox Church under Patriarch Nikon (who was from the village of Nizhny Novgorod) has led to the fact that in the near Nizhny Novgorod, and especially on the river Kerzhenets, formed numerous settlements of Old Believers. To eradicate the split in the Lower in 1672 he founded the Diocese of Nizhny Novgorod and Alatyrskaya which led to 1719 was the Metropolitan.

Provincial city

Coat of arms (1781)

As a result of the administrative and territorial reforms of Peter I Nizhny Novgorod from 1714 became a provincial town. In the 1720s the city opened Bukvarnaya, Russian and Slavic-Hellenic-Greek school, and in 1737 began working Nizhny Novgorod seminary. After a visit to the Lower Catherine II in 1767 developed the first plan for the city, and there are various institutions of social and cultural profile: First City Hospital, and the first pharmacy (1780), the first in the Volga regional printing house (1791), the first public theater Shakhovsky with a troupe of serfs (1798) .


The plan of Nizhny Novgorod Fair, the end of the XIX century

In 1817, on the left bank of the Oka was moved out of the city Makarieva Russia's largest fair, which began thanks to the rapid economic development of the town and its surrounding villages. Construction trade fair town on the low sandy banks of the Oka outstanding urban planning project was established under the leadership of A. Betancourt: artificial channel was dug, established sewerage system. Nizhny Novgorod fair complex includes the main Fair Building, Orthodox Staroyarmarochny (architect Montferrand) and Novoyarmarochny cathedrals, Sunni Mosque, Armenian Church, the Great Fairgrounds theater, circus. Thanks to the Nizhny Novgorod Fair earned the nickname "Pocket Russia." In the 1834-1841 years. were held in Nizhny urban transformation, so far defined the image and infrastructure of the historic center: Several exits were built connecting the Lower and Upper Posada (one of them - Zelenskiy - dug into the slope of the Kremlin Mountain), arranged in upper and lower embankments of earth, collected by digging Zelenskogo Congress, sprinkled on Lykov dam on the site of an old wooden bridge across Pochayna, the Kremlin was finally taken out a private residential area. In the middle of the XIX century there were major industries in the nearby villages of mechanical plant in Nizhny Novgorod Sormovo and a metal factory in Kanavino. In 1861, here was carried out one of the country's Moscow-Nizhny Novgorod Railway. In 1880, Nizhny Novgorod was founded Mercantile Exchange. In 1896, the district Kanavino was the biggest in the pre-revolutionary Russian National Exhibition of Art and Industry, on the occasion of which the city had conducted extensive improvement work: organized movement of the electric tram (the first in Russia to the present boundaries), built funicular from the lower to the upper Posad (on-Nizhny Novgorod called elevators), the new building of the City Theatre. In December 1905 in areas Sormovo Kanavino and there was an uprising of workers Sormovskogo plant. During the First World War, Nizhny Novgorod was filled with refugees from the west of the empire. Thanks to the Governor AF Girsu in 1915 in Nizhny Novgorod plant built phone "Siemens and Halske" in 1916, this opens the People's University of Nizhny Novgorod and is translated here Warsaw University of Technology (which became the basis of the future Gorky Polytechnic Institute). In the city urgently evacuated enterprises, institutions and defense plants (including plants Riga "Felser" and "Aetna"). The war prevented the implementation of many infrastructure and urban development projects in the Lower: No built-planned swing bridge across the Oka River, the Catholic Cathedral, the complex of buildings of the Polytechnic Institute. In early April 1917 was established the provincial Council of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies. Also in mid-March was formed Provincial Council of Peasants' Deputies, and a period of dual power.

The Soviet period

Map of Nizhny Novgorod and its environs in 1929 Fall of 1917 in the city of Soviet power. During the period of the NEP briefly revived Nizhny Novgorod. However, with the beginning of industrialization in the 1930 Fair was closed as a "hostile social phenomenon." In 1929 Sormovo and Kanavino were abolished, their territory together with other settlements (villages Gordeevka, Karpivka, Vysokovo, villages Vysokovo, Koposova, Fixes, Burnakovka, Knyazhiha, Ratmaniha, Kostarikha, Molitovka, Borzovka, Monastyrka, etc.) were included in the the Greater Nizhny Novgorod, which has since become divided into districts. In the same year, Nizhny Novgorod province was abolished and became a center of Nizhny Novgorod region. October 7, 1932 the city was renamed Gorky. Thirties of the XX century - a time of rapid growth of the industry in Nizhny Novgorod - Gorky. In 1932 he began to work the largest industrial enterprise in the city - the Gorky Automobile Plant, built with the assistance of Ford Motor Co. In the 1930-1940-ies city even referred to as the "Russian Detroit". Automobile Plant is an important object of the defense industry during World War II, along with the factory Red Sormovo aircraft factory number 21, Gorky fat plant and evacuated here from Moscow Aviation Plant Gidromash.


The memorial "Gorky - front" in Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

In Soviet times, the industry is rapidly developing and expanding the boundaries of the city along the river. During the Great Patriotic War is the title of the Guards 137th Division Gorky formation, and industrial companies are the main suppliers for the front: only at the Nizhny Novgorod engineering plant produced as much artillery and more on all enterprises in Germany. By virtue of its defense-industrial value city was bombed by German aircraft - during the war, enemy bombers flew 43 raid on Gorky, 26 of them strikes at night. In Soviet times, laid the foundations of modern transport and infrastructure problems of the city. Populous "sleeping quarters" were built in the lower part of the city near the plants, which in the ground and worked their residents. Then it is not supposed to be the daily movement of the working population in other parts of the city or on the other side of the Oka River. Bitter 1930 - 1950 was a direct city and several factories with workers towns and villages around them, separated by vacant lots, which by the end of the XX century were already lined with high-rise residential blocks. At the turn of XX-XXI centuries the flaws of such a scheme: a significant number of the population of residential areas the lower part of the city began to work and study in the mountainous part, and vice versa, resulting in four of the bridge across the Oka River, three of which were built during the Soviet period, still remain small places the transport system of the city. By virtue of being in Gorky defense plants since 1959, he became a "closed city", and this subsequently led to a low influx of tourists to the city (including foreign) and the weak development of Gorky airport. October 22, 1990 the city was returned to the name of Nizhny Novgorod.

The present stage

Since the 1990s, was the site of Lower specialized international forums and exhibitions based on the newly created society "Nizhny Novgorod Fair." In 2000, with the formation of the Volga Federal District, the city became the center of it. Downtown consists of the historic center, despite the fact that the narrow streets become an obstacle to this. In the early 2000s, the historic center begins actively to be built high-rise residential and office buildings, often made "infill development", which constantly attracts the attention of the public. Arson old wooden buildings are also a problem downtown. Some construction projects started before the crisis of 2008-2009, are now frozen, resulting in the very center of Nizhny Novgorod found a lot of unfinished retail and office buildings. In 2010, the city government with the participation of the public has been approved by the new master plan development. Draft plan of the center of Nizhny was designed "NO PI and the General Plan of Moscow." The new concept of development involves the transfer of business from an overloaded historic center of the city beyond the river (such transfer envisaged by Soviet general plans of the 1980s), the development of the underground, light rail and expansion of the urban area.

Geography

View of the confluence of the Oka and Volga from Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin

Nizhny Novgorod is located at the confluence of two major waterways of the European part of Russia - Volga and Oka rivers. Oka city is divided into two parts: the eastern sublime "hill" located on the right bank of the Oka and Volga rivers in the north-western tip of the Volga Uplands - Dyatlov mountains and west (on the left bank of the Oka and the right bank of the Volga) lowland "Zarechniy." The mouth of the Oka - the geographical center of the East European Plain. The area of ??the city on different data 410.68 - 466.5 km ?. The city stretches 20 kilometers along the Oka River, along the Volga - about 30 km. Within the city is dotted with 33 lakes and 12 rivers. The largest lake in the city - Mesherskoye is in Kanavinsky area, its water surface area - 13.6 hectares.


View from the plane of Nizhny Novgorod

The height of the hill - from 100 to 200 m above sea level. Left Bank has a height of 70-80 m above sea level. The historic city center is located in the mountainous part. In the course of the historical development of the majority of suburban villages became part of the city. Currently, the border city comes close to human settlements Bor (the border runs along the fairway of the Volga), Kuzminka Nikulskoe, Afonino, Utechino, Ankudinovka village, town Ankudinovka, Experienced, Cheremisska, Cheremisska, Frolovskoye, Sadowski, Rumyantsevo, News, Dzerzhinsk, Large Cousineau. In Nizhny Novgorod agglomeration also includes Kstovo, Bogorodsk, Pavlovsky. Nizhny Novgorod is bordered in the north with Bohr, Kstovsky region in the south-east, Bogorodsky district in the south, the west and the Dzerzhinsk Balakhna area in the north-west.

Areas of Nizhny Novgorod

- Avtozavodskij - Kanavinskiy - Lenin - Moscow - Nizhny Novgorod - Priokskiy - The Soviet - Sormovsky

Plan Nizhny Novgorod XIX century

The municipality "City of Nizhny Novgorod", having the status of city district, is divided into 8 districts (see map): Avtozavodskij, Kanavinskiy, Lenin, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Priokskiy, Soviet and Sormovsky. Formation of a modern administrative structure was completed in 1970 with the establishment of modern Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod and the Soviet areas. The largest of the districts - Avtozavodskij. As of 2010 it had a population 307.3 thousand people, and its area, much of which is industrial zone was 94 km ?. The most densely populated and smallest in area is Leninsky district. The composition of the five boroughs includes 13 settlements: Resort Village Green City; villages: Birch floodplain, Ray uchhoza "Suburban"; village: Beshentsevo, Blizhnekonstantinovo, Kuznechiha, Lyakhovo, Mordvintseva, New, Novopokrovsky, Ol'gino; Sloboda refurbish. The historic center of the city (almost wholly present in the territory of the Nizhny Novgorod region) have long been divided into several parts: the Kremlin's local mountain top trading quarter, adjacent to the Kremlin from the south, lower trading quarter on the banks of the Volga and the Oka, Zapochaine Upper Posada on the opposite bank of the river Pochaina, Scallop (Yarilo Mountain), New Construction south of Great jail, from the south and south-east limit of the streets Belinsky - the old border town and Settlement (the Annunciation, Panskaya, Akulinina, Soldier).


Ecological status

In Nizhny Novgorod, as in any other major industrial center of Russia, there is the problem of environmental pollution. Contaminated groundwater, small reservoirs, the main sources of water intake - Oka and Volga - subject to strong anthropogenic impact. Because of the built plant and sewage in the city in the Volga there is a high bacterial contamination, which does not allow to use it for recreational purposes and to chlorinate drinking water causes higher doses, leading to exacerbate formation of carcinogenic chlorinated organic compounds. To combat the illegal dumps since 2006 is setting up environmental police. With the appropriate application to the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation for the inclusion of a pilot project addressed the regional government. In 2008, the approved staffing level of environmental unit within the Public Security Police. As of 2008 the bulk of solid waste disposed of in landfills.

Population

In 2011, the city's population is estimated to be 1,255,159 people (5 th place in Russia), of which 550.2 thousand - men and 700.4 thousand - women (in Nizhny Novgorod on 1000 men of working age account for 1270 females). Given the villages and rural settlements within the Borough - 1,261,549 people. On the penultimate 2002 census the population was 1,311 thousand. Average age - 39.9 years. 64% of the residents of the city - working-age dependency ratio is 0.57. By nationality, 95% of the population - Russian. As of 2009 the city's population of about 358,000 retirees and there were 30 centenarians, whose age was 100 years and more. In the city's population of 2.7 thousand large families, bringing up 8.6 thousand children. 12.6 million single mothers bringing up 13.6 thousand children. By 2012, the number of large families has increased to 3,700.


The population growth of the city in XIX-XX centuries

In 1811, the population was 14.4 million people by 1914, the number of residents increased to 111,600. During the Soviet industrialization of the city limits expanded, absorbing the city Sormovo and Kanavino, and therefore the population of the city has changed from 181.2 million in 1926 to 643.7 million in 1939. In 1989, the city had 1,438 thousand people, most populous city held the third place in the Russian Federation. Then came the turning point and the population has changed to negative. Since the 1990's there has been a declining population. In 2009, the birth rate has increased, and the mortality rate - has declined. Natural population decline was 5.0 ppm (in 2008 - 6.2, in 2005 - 8.7 ppm). According to the calculations of the UN Human Settlements Programme in 2020 the city will lose up to 11.8% of its population compared to 1990. Nizhny Novgorod has a vast agglomeration of 2,020 thousand. (5 th place in Russia), which is 60% of the Nizhny Novgorod region. Demographic characteristics of Nizhny Novgorod is the proximity of the city, a millionaire to Moscow. In the 1990-2000-ies may be noted labor migration to the Moscow agglomeration.

Economy

"Gazelle"


MiG-31

Nizhny Novgorod - one of the largest industrial centers of Russia, the leading role belongs to the companies in which the machinery industry, metal processing and information technology.

In 2010, large and medium-sized enterprises manufacturing shipped goods production, works and services in the amount of 143.0 billion rubles. The bulk of industrial production comes from the automotive, shipbuilding and production of weapons. At the Gorky automobile plant employs 27,000 people (2009). The largest plants of this sphere are: Shipyard "Red Sormovo" aircraft manufacturing plant "Sokol", Nizhny Novgorod Machine Works, factories aircraft equipment "Gidromash" and "Heat," factory "Krasnaya Etna", Diesel Building Plant "DIA", "Red Anchor" "Thermal", the plant "NITEL" Plant equipment Telecommunications. Popov, NGO "Salute" and Nizhny Novgorod plant them. GI Petrovsky. Heavy industry city is represented by Gorky Metallurgical Plant (bankrupt in 2010). The construction industry is provided by the local building materials. Light and food industries are hosiery, leather and footwear, clothing companies, meat processing, sausage factories, dairy plant. Operates a number of woodworking and printing sectors. Heat and power supply of the city is carried Avtozavodskaya CHP electrical capacity of 580 MW thermal power station Sormovskaya (TGC-6) - 340 MW. The industrial sector accounts for 50 to 60% of the gross city product, accounting for 40% of the volume of industrial output produced in the Nizhny Novgorod region. On the 137 large and medium-sized enterprises 14 major industries employ about 179 people (41% of total employment in the city). Only in large and medium-sized enterprises employ 423 thousand people. Nizhny Novgorod - one of the centers of Russian information technology. This area includes such companies as Intel (largest development center in Europe), a center of competence and development, SAP, Mail.ru, Huawei, Orange Business Services, MERA Networks, MFI Soft (ALOE Systems), Teleca Russia and other smaller companies (Auriga, Exigen Services, Tecom, Devetel, Capvidia, Five9, Datanaut, NKT, SoftDrom, etc.). In November 2009, Nizhny Novgorod was named the first of the 10 cities in the world with the greatest potential for outsourcing.